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Haspi medical biology lab 20 evidences of evolution answers

Haspi medical biology lab 20 evidences of evolution answers

NCBI Bookshelf. National Academy of Sciences US. Along path leads from the origins of primitive "life," which existed at least 3. This path is best understood as a product of evolution. Contrary to popular opinion, neither the term nor the idea of biological evolution began with Charles Darwin and his foremost work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Many scholars from the ancient Greek philosophers on had inferred that similar species were descended from a common ancestor.

The word "evolution" first appeared in the English language in in a nonbiological connection, and it became widely used in English for all sorts of progressions from simpler beginnings. The term Darwin most often used to refer to biological evolution was "descent with modification," which remains a good brief definition of the process today. Darwin proposed that evolution could be explained by the differential survival of organisms following their naturally occurring variation—a process he termed "natural selection.

Furthermore, organisms in nature typically produce more offspring than can survive and reproduce given the constraints of food, space, and other environmental resources. If a particular offspring has traits that give it an advantage in a particular environment, that organism will be more likely to survive and pass on those traits.

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As differences accumulate over generations, populations of organisms diverge from their ancestors. Darwin's original hypothesis has undergone extensive modification and expansion, but the central concepts stand firm.

Studies in genetics and molecular biology—fields unknown in Darwin's time—have explained the occurrence of the hereditary variations that are essential to natural selection. Genetic variations result from changes, or mutations, in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, the molecule that genes are made from.

Such changes in DNA now can be detected and described with great precision. Genetic mutations arise by chance.

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They may or may not equip the organism with better means for surviving in its environment. But if a gene variant improves adaptation to the environment for example, by allowing an organism to make better use of an available nutrient, or to escape predators more effectively—such as through stronger legs or disguising colorationthe organisms carrying that gene are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without it.

Over time, their descendants will tend to increase, changing the average characteristics of the population. Although the genetic variation on which natural selection works is based on random or chance elements, natural selection itself produces "adaptive" change—the very opposite of chance.

Scientists also have gained an understanding of the processes by which new species originate. A new species is one in which the individuals cannot mate and produce viable descendants with individuals of a preexisting species. The split of one species into two often starts because a group of individuals becomes geographically separated from the rest. Mountains, rivers, lakes, and other natural barriers also account for geographic separation between populations that once belonged to the same species.

Once isolated, geographically separated groups of individuals become genetically differentiated as a consequence of mutation and other processes, including natural selection.

The origin of a species is often a gradual process, so that at first the reproductive isolation between separated groups of organisms is only partial, but it eventually becomes complete.

Scientists pay special attention to these intermediate situations, because they help to reconstruct the details of the process and to identify particular genes or sets of genes that account for the reproductive isolation between species.

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Today the different species of finches on the island have distinct habitats, diets, and behaviors, but the mechanisms involved in speciation continue to operate.

A research group led by Peter and Rosemary Grant of Princeton University has shown that a single year of drought on the islands can drive evolutionary changes in the finches. Drought diminishes supplies of easily cracked nuts but permits the survival of plants that produce larger, tougher nuts. Droughts thus favor birds with strong, wide beaks that can break these tougher seeds, producing populations of birds with these traits. The Grants have estimated that if droughts occur about once every 10 years on the islands, a new species of finch might arise in only about years.

The following sections consider several aspects of biological evolution in greater detail, looking at paleontology, comparative anatomy, biogeography, embryology, and molecular biology for further evidence supporting evolution.

Although it was Darwin, above all others, who first marshaled convincing evidence for biological evolution, earlier scholars had recognized that organisms on Earth had changed systematically over long periods of time.

For example, in an engineer named William Smith reported that, in undisrupted layers of rock, fossils occurred in a definite sequential order, with more modern-appearing ones closer to the top. Because bottom layers of rock logically were laid down earlier and thus are older than top layers, the sequence of fossils also could be given a chronology from oldest to youngest.

His findings were confirmed and extended in the s by the paleontologist William Lonsdale, who recognized that fossil remains of organisms from lower strata were more primitive than the ones above.Evidence Supporting Biological Evolution A long path leads from the origins of primitive "life," which existed at least 3. This path is best understood as a product of evolution. Contrary to popular opinion, neither the term nor the idea of biological evolution began with Charles Darwin and his foremost work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Many scholars from the ancient Greek philosophers on had inferred that similar species were descended from a common ancestor.

The word "evolution" first appeared in the English language in in a nonbiological connection, and it became widely used in English for all sorts of progressions from simpler beginnings. The term Darwin most often used to refer to biological evolution was "descent with modification," which remains a good brief definition of the process today. Darwin proposed that evolution could be explained by the differential survival of organisms following their naturally occurring variation--a process he termed "natural selection.

Furthermore, organisms in nature typically produce more offspring than can survive and reproduce given the constraints of food, space, and other environmental resources.

haspi medical biology lab 20 evidences of evolution answers

If a particular off spring has traits that give it an advantage in a particular environment, that organism will be more likely to survive and pass on those traits. As differences accumulate over generations, populations of organisms diverge from their ancestors. Darwin's original hypothesis has undergone extensive modification and expansion, but the central concepts stand firm. Studies in genetics and molecular biology--fields unknown in Darwin's time--have explained the occurrence of the hereditary variations that are essential to natural selection.

Genetic variations result from changes, or mutations, in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, the molecule that genes are made from. Such changes in DNA now can be detected and described with great precision.

Genetic mutations arise by chance.

haspi medical biology lab 20 evidences of evolution answers

They may or may not equip the organism with better means for surviving in its environment. But if a gene variant improves adaptation to the environment for example, by allowing an organism to make better use of an available nutrient, or to escape predators more effectively--such as through stronger legs or disguising colorationthe organisms carrying that gene are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without it.

Over time, their descendants will tend to increase, changing the average characteristics of the population. Although the genetic variation on which natural selection works is based on random or chance elements, natural selection itself produces "adaptive" change--the very opposite of chance.

Scientists also have gained an understanding of the processes by which new species originate. A new species is one in which the individuals cannot mate and produce viable descendants with individuals of a preexisting species. The split of one species into two often starts because a group of individuals becomes geographically separated from the rest. Mountains, rivers, lakes, and other natural barriers also account for geographic separation between populations that once belonged to the same species.

Once isolated, geographically separated groups of individuals become genetically differentiated as a consequence of mutation and other processes, including natural selection.

The origin of a species is often a gradual process, so that at first the reproductive isolation between separated groups of organisms is only partial, but it eventually becomes complete.

haspi medical biology lab 20 evidences of evolution answers

Scientists pay special attention to these intermediate situations, because they help to reconstruct the details of the process and to identify particular genes or sets of genes that account for the reproductive isolation between species.

Today the different species of finches on the island have distinct habitats, diets, and behaviors, but the mechanisms involved in speciation continue to operate. A research group led by Peter and Rosemary Grant of Princeton University has shown that a single year of drought on the islands can drive evolutionary changes in the finches.

Drought diminishes supplies of easily cracked nuts but permits the survival of plants that produce larger, tougher nuts. Droughts thus favor birds with strong, wide beaks that can break these tougher seeds, producing populations of birds with these traits. The Grants have estimated that if droughts occur about once every 10 years on the islands, a new species of finch might arise in only about years. The following sections consider several aspects of biological evolution in greater detail, looking at paleontology, comparative anatomy, biogeography, embryology, and molecular biology for further evidence supporting evolution.

For example, in an engineer named William Smith reported that, in undisrupted layers of rock, fossils occurred in a definite sequential order, with more modern-appearing ones closer to the top.

Because bottom layers of rock logically were laid down earlier and thus are older than top layers, the sequence of fossils also could be given a chronology from oldest to youngest.

His findings were confirmed and extended in the s by the paleontologist William Lonsdale, who recognized that fossil remains of organisms from lower strata were more primitive than the ones above.

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Today, many thousands of ancient rock deposits have been identified that show corresponding successions of fossil organisms. Thus, the general sequence of fossils had already been recognized before Darwin conceived of descent with modification.

But the paleontologists and geologists before Darwin used the sequence of fossils in rocks not as proof of biological evolution, but as a basis for working out the original sequence of rock strata that had been structurally disturbed by earthquakes and other forces. In Darwin's time, paleontology was still a rudimentary science. Large parts of the geological succession of stratified rocks were unknown or inadequately studied.Plants b. Eubacteria c. Fungi d.

Penicillin b. Tetracycline c. Erythromycin d. Who isolated Streptococcus pneumonia for the first time? Robert Koch b. Edward Jenner c. Antony von Leewenhock d. Louis Pasteur. Protein b. Lipid c. Sugar d. Nucleic acid. Amylase b. Phosphatase c. Lysozyme d. Ring worm is a disease caused by. Fungus b. Bacteria c.

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Tape worm d.You successfully completed Patient A's Karyotype. Next, interpret the karyotype and make a diagnosis. Patient A's completed karyotype is at the bottom of the page for reference. Lab technicians compile karyotypes and then use a specific notation to characterize the karyotype. This notation includes the total number of chromosomes, the sex chromosomes, and any extra or missing autosomal chromosomes.

The next step is to either diagnose or rule out a chromosomal abnormality. In a patient with a normal number of chromosomes, each pair will have only two chromosomes. Having an extra or missing chromosome usually renders a fetus inviable.

In cases where the fetus makes it to term, there are unique clinical features depending on which chromosome is affected. Listed below are some syndromes caused by an abnormal number of chromosomes.

Diagnosis Chromosomal Abnormality Normal of chromosomes patient's problems are due to something other than an abnormal number of chromosomes. Klinefelter's Syndrome one or more extra sex chromosomes i. All rights reserved. On a separate piece of paper, answer the following 2 questions. Interpreting the karyotype Lab technicians compile karyotypes and then use a specific notation to characterize the karyotype. What notation would you use to characterize Patient A's karyotype?

Making a diagnosis The next step is to either diagnose or rule out a chromosomal abnormality. What diagnosis would you give patient A?Medical Biology is the concentrator course that begins the grades Patient Care Pathway.

Units include: scientific process in diagnosis, measurements and equipment, simple chemistry, cell structure and function, medical terminology, organ systems, human reproduction, human inheritance blood typeshuman health drugs, addiction and the brainand evolutionary mechanisms antibiotic resistance. Students will earn life science, biology or health credit and can continue this pathway by taking Medical Careers and Terminology in grade Free access.

Register for the password. Supplementary Materials by Christine Hahn. The Scientific Process in Diagnosis Med Bio Lab 1a : Students will learn about the scientific process as it applies to medical diagnoses.

The activity is set up as patient rooms stations with 5 patients that require a diagnosis. Students will use inquiry and the scientific method to analyze patient symptoms and perform tests to determine a diagnosis for each patient. Scientific Equipment and Measurements Med Bio lab 1b : Students will become more familiar with common measurements and equipment used in the medical biology labs for this course. All stations have medical application.

Students will watch an episode of House and outline the scientific process in a medical diagnosis. They will be asked to go through a series of stations to show mastery of basic metric measurements and equipment. Modeling Macromolecules Med Bio Lab 7a : Students will make and use paper models to perform dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis on carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Velcro is used to represent the bonds between atoms. Lab groups also have the opportunity to test common food items of their choice for macromolecules.

Both labs focus on the presence of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen in the structure of monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides. Cell Specialization and Organ Systems Med Bio Lab 3a : Students have the opportunity to learn and observe the function of organ systems and the specialized cells that form those systems while diagnosing a medical condition affecting those systems.

The body systems covered include digestive, immune, skeletal, nervous, and respiratory. Students observe how a disease localized to a single body system can affect and create symptoms in multiple body systems.

The urinalysis is a very common diagnostic test. In this lab students will act as laboratory technicians, and will be performing a urinalysis on simulated urine samples that have been submitted to their lab. A short background on symptoms and reasons for urine collection for each patient is also given. Students are then required to interpret the results of the urinalysis for each patient.Endogenous retrovirus wikipedialookup. Peptide synthesis wikipedialookup. Ancestral sequence reconstruction wikipedialookup.

Deoxyribozyme wikipedialookup. Non-coding DNA wikipedialookup. Metabolism wikipedialookup. Artificial gene synthesis wikipedialookup. Hepoxilin wikipedialookup.

haspi medical biology lab 20 evidences of evolution answers

Amino acid synthesis wikipedialookup. Nucleic acid analogue wikipedialookup. Point mutation wikipedialookup. Genetic code wikipedialookup. Biochemistry wikipedialookup. Biosynthesis wikipedialookup. Login Register.

Science Biology Biochemistry. Thank you for your participation! Document related concepts. Endogenous retrovirus wikipedialookup Peptide synthesis wikipedialookup Ancestral sequence reconstruction wikipedialookup Deoxyribozyme wikipedialookup Non-coding DNA wikipedialookup Metabolism wikipedialookup Artificial gene synthesis wikipedialookup Hepoxilin wikipedialookup Amino acid synthesis wikipedialookup Nucleic acid analogue wikipedialookup Point mutation wikipedialookup Genetic code wikipedialookup Biochemistry wikipedialookup Biosynthesis wikipedialookup.

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Disorders in the Fossil Record 1.A PDF of this article can be downloaded here. For those who follow the debate over origins, Dr. Scott's words are as unsurprising as they are familiar. It seems that almost on a daily basis, we find the news media quoting evolutionary scientists declaring that materialist accounts of biological and chemical evolution are "fact.

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The few holdouts who remain are intimidated into silence. But is it true that there are "no weaknesses" in evolutionary theory? Are those who express doubts about Darwinism displaying courage, or are they fools that want to take us back to the dark ages and era of the flat Earth? This chapter will review some of this literature, and show that there are numerous legitimate scientific challenges to core tenets of Darwinian theory, as well as predominant theories of chemical evolution.

Those who harbor doubts about Darwinism need not be terrified by academic bullies who pretend there is no scientific debate to be had. According to conventional thinking among origin of life theorists, life arose via unguided chemical reactions on the early Earth some 3 to 4 billion years ago.

Most theorists believe that there were many steps involved in the origin of life, but the very first step would have involved the production of a primordial soup -- a water-based sea of simple organic molecules -- out of which life arose. While the existence of this "soup" has been accepted as unquestioned fact for decades, this first step in most origin-of-life theories faces numerous scientific difficulties. Ina graduate student at the University of Chicago named Stanley Miller, along with his faculty advisor Harold Urey, performed experiments hoping to produce the building blocks of life under natural conditions on the early Earth.

After running the experiments and letting the chemical products sit for a period of time, Miller discovered that amino acids -- the building blocks of proteins -- had been produced.

For decades, these experiments have been hailed as a demonstration that the "building blocks" of life could have arisen under natural, realistic Earthlike conditions, 5 corroborating the primordial soup hypothesis. However, it has also been known for decades that the Earth's early atmosphere was fundamentally different from the gasses used by Miller and Urey. The atmosphere used in the Miller-Urey experiments was primarily composed of reducing gasses like methane, ammonia, and high levels of hydrogen.

Geochemists now believe that the atmosphere of the early Earth did not contain appreciable amounts of these components. Reducing gasses are those which tend to donate electrons during chemical reactions. Likewise, an article in the journal Science stated: "Miller and Urey relied on a 'reducing' atmosphere, a condition in which molecules are fat with hydrogen atoms. As Miller showed later, he could not make organics in an 'oxidizing' atmosphere.

There are good reasons to understand why the Earth's early atmosphere did not contain high concentrations of methane, ammonia, or other reducing gasses. The earth's early atmosphere is thought to have been produced by outgassing from volcanoes, and the composition of those volcanic gasses is related to the chemical properties of the Earth's inner mantle. Geochemical studies have found that the chemical properties of the Earth's mantle would have been the same in the past as they are today.

A paper in Earth and Planetary Science Letters found that the chemical properties of the Earth's interior have been essentially constant over Earth's history, leading to the conclusion that "Life may have found its origins in other environments or by other mechanisms. Because of these difficulties, some leading theorists have abandoned the Miller-Urey experiment and the "primordial soup" theory it is claimed to support. InUniversity College London biochemist Nick Lane stated the primordial soup theory "doesn't hold water" and is "past its expiration date.

But both the hydrothermal vent and primordial soup hypotheses face another major problem. Assume for a moment that there was some way to produce simple organic molecules on the early Earth.

Perhaps they did form a "primordial soup," or perhaps these molecules arose near some hydrothermal vent. Either way, origin of life theorists must then explain how amino acids or other key organic molecules linked up to form long chains polymers like proteins or RNA.

Chemically speaking, however, the last place you'd want to link amino acids into chains would be a vast water-based environment like the "primordial soup" or underwater near a hydrothermal vent.

As the National Academy of Sciences acknowledges, "Two amino acids do not spontaneously join in water. Rather, the opposite reaction is thermodynamically favored. Materialists lack good explanations for these first, simple steps which are necessary to the origin-of-life. Chemical evolution is literally dead in the water. Let's assume, again, that a primordial sea filled with life's building blocks did exist on the early Earth, and somehow it formed proteins and other complex organic molecules.

Origin of life theorists believe that the next step in the origin of life is that -- entirely by chance -- more and more complex molecules formed until some began to self-replicate. From there, they believe Darwinian natural selection took over, favoring those molecules which were better able to make copies. Eventually, they assume, it became inevitable that these molecules would evolve complex machinery -- like that used in today's genetic code -- to survive and reproduce.